History

The Mundane Origins of Germany's Huge Turkish Population

German Wirtschaftswunder


by Daniel Pipes
In 1961, the German post-war "economic miracle" (Wirtschaftswunder) was in full bloom, with a seemingly insatiable thirst for unskilled workers. After signing government-to-government bilateral agreements with Italy (in 1955), Greece (1960), and Spain (1960), Bonn turned to Ankara and on this day, Oct. 30, in 1961 signed a "Recruitment Agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and Turkey" (Anwerbeabkommen zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Türkei). Little did either side realize the implications of this seemingly minor accord.

Uncanny parallels between Iranian Revolution and Erdogan’s latest purges

 

After the failed coup attempt in Turkey, there has been purges in place throughout the country. In the first emergency decree after the coup attempt, the Turkish state seized the properties of 2,341 institutions. Turkey detained 8,831 army officers, 1,329 police officers, 2,100 judges and prosecutors, 52 civilian administrators and 689 civilians as of today.

Reflections on the Second Lebanon War, 10 Years On


by Jonathan Spyer, The Jerusalem Post
Israeli soldiers returning from the front with captured Lebanese and Hezbollah flags, July 25, 2006.
For those of us who took part in it, the war remains quiet and always just in view, like a suitcase filled with items of memory in the corner of a room.

Israel's Socialist Dreams vs. Capitalist Realities


by Steven Plaut, Middle East Quarterly, Summer 2016 

Israel truly is the startup nation. There are more startups in Israel than in Western Europe, and the number of Israeli patents is among the largest for any country in the world. Shares of numerous Israeli companies trade on the NASDAQ stock exchange while acquisitions of Israeli high-tech companies by foreign investors inject many billions of dollars into the country every year.

US had extensive contact with Ayatollah Khomeini before Iran revolution

A billboard shows the founder of the Islamic revolution, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

Saeed Kamali Dehghan in London and David Smith in Washington

Documents seen by BBC suggest Carter administration paved way for Khomeini to return to Iran by holding the army back from launching a military coup.
Iranian leaders have reacted with fury to reports that newly declassified US diplomatic cables revealed extensive contacts between Ayatollah Khomeini and the Carter administration just weeks ahead of Iran’s Islamic revolution.

Nazi gold and Turkey

 Civilian Agency Records
State Department and Foreign Affairs Records

Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State (RG 84)

Turkey began World War II bound to Great Britain and France by the military alliance of October 1939, moved to non-belligerency in June 1940 after the fall of France, and adopted a policy of "active neutrality" in the spring of 1941 after German occupation of the Balkans and the conclusion of a German-Turkish Treaty of Friendship on June 18, 1941.

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